IQAC (CO, PO, PEO, PSO, CO Attainment , OBE & LOCF) Management System

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The University Grants Commission (UGC) has taken an initiative to make the teaching-learning framework better and enhance the student learning outcomes and introducing the concept of LOCF - Learning Outcome Based Curriculum Framework in India.

The concept behind the implementation of LOCF is to pre-determine what outcomes need to be achieved by planning, mapping & measuring the student outcomes in Indian institutions & Universities. It is quite similar to the concept of Outcome Based Education (Outcome Based Education (BE) System. However, the major difference is that unlike the OBE framework, LOCF is implemented for the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) for the undergraduate (UG) & postgraduate (PG) programs. The faculty needs to design a curriculum that would help students learn subjects of their interests while mapping their progress at every step.

The student learning outcomes would be defined in terms of their –

  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Understanding
  • Graduate Attributes
  • Values
  • Employability

Need of Learning Outcome Based Curriculum Framework (LOCF)

In India the current education system is teacher-centric.

Faculty/Teaching staff decides everything, like course curriculum to assessment pattern. Here students think just to score highest marks or decent marks in examination rather than thinking of their future & career perspective.

The LOCF has tremendous potential to break the traditional teaching-learning barriers and make the education system student-centric. To improve student’s passion for learning news skills & adopting an innovative mindset, it’s of utmost importance to incorporate the learning outcomes based curriculum framework.

Aim Of The Learning Outcome Based Curriculum Framework (LOCF)

Enhancing the quality of higher education is the ultimate aim of LOCF lies in India and encouraging the students to gain the best skills & knowledge during their student journey. At the end of their study program Learning outcomes are determined in sync with what students are expected to understand.

To design the Teaching-Learning curriculum and graduate attributes the final expected student learning outcomes are considered as a reference. Once the final expected outcomes are defined clearly, teachers need to formulate a curriculum that would help them attain their goals. The curriculum intents to –

  • Teaching-learning innovation
  • Continuous teaching-learning improvements
  • Assessment of students at various levels
  • Improve flexibility of learning
  • Periodic review of student performance
  • Evaluating program learning outcomes (POs)
  • Evaluating course learning outcomes (COs)
  • Maintain highest standards of education
  • Create an environment of global competitiveness



Learning Cycle Of The Learning Outcome Based Curriculum Framework (LOCF)

The learning cycle of the LOCF can be divided into the following three phases-

1) Planning Phase

In this phase, the faculty needs to set specific outcomes, design content & plan the content delivery & assessment strategies. This is the primary foundation that sets the entire journey hassle-free.

2) Execution Phase

The second phase focuses on delivering quality content in the best possible ways. The faculty needs to ensure that a proper curriculum is designed & delivered to students and also, prepare assessment papers that would help them map & measure the outcomes at every step.

Once the curriculum is defined, the faculty needs to decide various ways of delivering the content that could include the following -

  • Traditional chalkboard method
  • Online teaching & learning
  • Video lectures or webinars
  • Industrial projects
  • Seminars & workshops
  • Online assignments
  • Field visits

Assessment & Question Paper Setting

In LOCF, the two modes of assessments need to be incorporated are: Direct & Indirect

A) Direct Assessment Method

Direct Assessment can be again categorized as-Course Internal Evaluation (CIE) and Semester End Examination (SEE). The weightage of SEE ranges between 70%-75% and the weightage of CIE is 25%-30%.

The course internal evaluation is analyzed based on the following parameters-

  • Internal Examination Marks
  • Laboratory/Practical Work
  • Daily Assignments
  • Minor/Major Projects
  • Seminars/Webinars

B) Indirect Assessment Method

Indirect assessment & evaluation is analyzed on the basis of the Course Exit Survey.

Setting question papers is equally important as defining the ways of assessment. The question papers need to be created on the framework of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The major reason for following Bloom’s Taxonomy is that it evaluates the students on various levels that determine the development of the given set of skills in students-

#1: Remember

#2: Understand

#3: Application

#4: Analysis

#5: Evaluate

#6: Create

3) Attainment Phase

The attainment phase is the final phase wherein the faculty needs to precisely evaluate whether the outcomes are attained or not. The faculty needs to identify the learning gaps by analyzing the students’ performance. If the student performance doesn’t meet the expectations, the faculty needs to incorporate new techniques that would help them fulfill the goals.

The outcomes are set at the following three levels-

A) Course Outcomes (COs)

Course outcomes or COs define the goals or outcomes that a student is expected to attain at the end of a specific course/semester/academic year. For instance, if the student is studying a course in Economics, then the outcomes would be decided on the basis of students’ performance in the theory and practical subjects.

B) Program Outcomes (POs)

Program outcomes or POs define the goals or outcomes that a student is expected to attain at the end of the graduate program. For instance, if a student completes engineering, there’s a certain set of POs or graduate attributes that need to be attained at the end of the degree.

C) Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs)

The program-specific outcomes or PSOs specify the expected goals from students belonging to a specific field of a graduate program. For instance, a student studying mechanical engineering may have different PSOs than a student in electronic engineering.

At the end of the courses, the program outcomes & course outcomes are calculated. The faculty maps the COs with POs and ultimately with the PSOs to analyze the outcomes more specifically.